The Pillow of righteousness |
As I have heard it, I shall tell how the Venerable Ascetic, exerting himself and meditating, after having entered the order in that winter, wandered about,
'I shall not cover myself with that robe,' only in that winter (he used it). He had crossed (the samsara) for the rest of his life. This (refusing of dress) is in accordance with his doctrine.
More than four months many sorts of living beings gathered on his body, crawled about it, and caused pain there.
For a year and a month he did not leave off his robe. Since that time the Venerable One, giving up his robe, was a naked, world-relinquishing, houseless (sage).
Then he meditated (walking) with his eye fixed on a square space before him of the length of a man. Many people assembled, shocked at the sight; they struck him and cried.
Knowing (and renouncing) the female sex in mixed gathering places, he meditated, finding his way himself: I do not lead a worldly life.
Giving up the company of all householders whomsoever, he meditated. Asked, he gave no answer; he went, and did not transgress the right path.
For some it is not easy (to do what he did), not to answer those who salute; he was beaten with sticks, and struck by sinful people.
Disregarding slights difficult to bear, the Sage wandered about, (not attracted) by story-tellers, pantomimes, songs, fights at quarter-staff, and boxing-matches.
At that time the son of Gñatri saw without sorrow (or pleasure) people in mutual conversation. Gñatriputra obtained oblivion of these exquisite sorrows.
For more than a couple of years he led a religious life without using cold water; he realised singleness, guarded his body, had got intuition, and was calm.
Thoroughly,knowing the earth-bodies and waterbodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies, the lichens, seeds, and sprouts,
He comprehended that they are, if narrowly inspected, imbued with life, and avoided to injure them; he, the great Hero.
The immovable (beings) are changed to movable ones, and the movable beings to immovable ones; beinas which are born in all states become individually sinners by their actions.
The Venerable One understands thus: he who is under the conditions (of existence), that fool suffers pain. Thoroughly knowing (karman), the Venerable One avoids sin.
The sage, perceiving the double (karman), proclaims the incomparable activity, he, the knowing one; knowing the current of worldliness, the current of sinfulness, and the impulse,
Practising the sinless abstinence from killing, he did no acts, neither himself nor with the assistanceof others; he to whom women were known as the causes of all sinful acts, he saw (the true state of the world).
He did not use what had expressly been prepared for him; he well saw (that bondage comes) through action. Whatever is sinful, the Venerable One left that undone: he consumed clean food.
He did not use another's robe, nor does he eat out of another's vessel. Disregarding contempt, he went with indifference to places where food was prepared.
Knowing measure in eating and drinking, he was not desirous of delicious food, nor had he a longing for it. A sage should not rub his eyes nor scratch his body.
Looking a little sideward, looking a little behind, answering little when spoken to, he should walk attentively looking on his path.
When the cold season has half-way advanced, the houseless, leaving off his robe and stretching out his arms, should wander about, not leaning against a trunk.
This is the rule which has often been followed by the wise Brahmana, the Venerable One, who is free from attachment: thus proceed (the monks).
Thus I say.
Whatever different seats and couches have been told, whatever have been used by the great Hero, these resting-places are thus detailed.
He sometimes lodged in workshops, assembling-places, wells, or shops; sometimes in manufactories or under a shed of straw.
He sometimes lodged in travellers halls, gardenhouses, or towns; sometimes on a burying-ground, in relinquished houses, or at the foot of a tree.
In these places was the wise Sramana for thirteen long years; he meditated day and night, exerting himself, undisturbed, strenuously.
The Venerable One, exerting himself, did not seek sleep for the sake of pleasure; he waked up himself, and slept only a little, free from desires.
Waking tip again, the Venerable One lay down, exerting himself; going outside for once in a night, he walked about for an hour.
In his resting-places he sustained fearful and manifold calamities; crawling or flying animals attack him.
Bad people, the guard of the village, or lance-bearers attack him; or there were domestic temptations, single women or men;
Fearful and manifold (calamities) of this and the next world; pleasant and unpleasant smells, and manifold sounds:
Always well controlled, he bore the different sorts of feelings; overcoming carelessness and pleasure, the Brahmana wandered about, speaking but little.
In the resting-places there once, in a night, the single, wanderers asked him (who he was, and why he was there); as he did not answer, they treated him badly; but he persevered in his meditations, free from resentment.
(Sometimes to avoid greater troubles when asked), 'Who is there within?' he answered, ' It is I, a mendicant.' But this is the best law: silently to meditate, even if badly treated.
When a cold wind blows, in which some feel pain, then some houseless monks in the cold rain seek a place sheltered from the wind.
(Some heretical monks say), 'We shall put on more clothes; kindling wood or (well) covered, we shall be able (to bear) the very painful influence of the cold.'
But the Venerable One desired nothingof the kind; strong in control, he suffered, despising all shelter. Goina outside once of a night, the Venerable One was able (to endure all hardships) in calmness.
This is the rule which has often been followed by the wise Brilimana, the Venerable One, who is free from attachment: thus proceed (the monks).
Thus I say.
Always well guarded, he bore the pains (caused by) grass, cold, fire, flies, and gnats; manifold pains.
He travelled in the pathless country of the Udhas, in Vaggabhumi and Subbhabhumi; he used there miserable beds and miserable seats.
In Ladha (happened) to him many dangers. Many natives attacked him. Even in the faithful part of the rough country the dogs bit him, ran at him.
Few people kept off the attacking, biting dogs. Striking the monk, they cried 'Khukkhu,' and made the dogs bite him.
Such were the inhabitants. Many other men.dicants, eating rough food in Vaggabhumi, and carrying about a strong pole or a stalk (to keep off the dogs), lived there.
Even thus armed they were bitten by the dogs, torn by the dogs. It is difficult to travel in Ladha.
Ceasing to use the stick (i. e. cruelty) against living beings, abandoning the care of the body, the houseless (Mahavira), the Venerable One, endures the thorns of the villages (i.e. the abusive language of the peasants), (being) perfectly enlightened.
As an elephant at the head of the battle, so was Mahavira there victorious. Sometimes he did not reach a village there in Ladha.
When he who is free from desires approached the village, the inhabitants met him on the outside, and attacked him, saying, 'Get away from here.'
He was struck with a stick, the fist, a lance, hit with a fruit, a clod, a potsherd, Beating him again and auain, many cried,-
When he once (sat) without moving his body, they cut his flesh,, tore his hair under pains, or covered him with dust.
Throwing him up, they let him fall, or disturbed him in his religious postures; abandoning the care of his body, the Venerable One humbled himself and bore pain, free from desire.
As a hero at the head of the -battle is surrounded on all sides, so was there Mahavira. Bearing all hardships, the Venerable One, undisturbed, proceeded (on the road to Nirvana).
This is the rule which has often been followed.
The Venerable One was able to abstain from indulgence of the flesh, though never attacked by diseases. Whether wounded or not wounded, he desired not medical treatment.
Purgatives and emetics, anointing of the body and bathing, shampooing and cleansing of the teeth do not behove him, after he learned (that the body is something unclean).
Being averse from the impressions of the senses, the Brahmana wandered about, speaking but little. Sometimes in the cold season the Venerable One was meditating in the shade.
In summer he exposes himself to the heat, he sits squatting in the sun; he lives on rough (food): rice, pounded jujube, and beans.
Using these three, the Venerable One sustained himself eight months. Sometimes the Venerable One did not drink for half a month or even for a month.
Or he did not drink for more than two months, or even six months, day and night, without desire (for drink). Sometimes he ate stale food.
Sometimes he ate only the sixth meal, or the eighth, the tenth, the twelfth; without desires, persevering in meditation.
Having wisdom, Mahavira committed no sin himself, nor did he induce others to (to so, nor did he consent to the sins of others.
Having entered a village or a town, he begged for food which had been prepared for somebody else. Having got clean food, he used it, restraining the impulses.
When there were hungry crows, or thirsty beings stood in his way, where he begged, or when he saw them flying repeatedly down,
When a Brahmana or Sramana, a beggar or guest, a Kandala, a cat, or a dog stood in his way,
Without ceasing in his reflections, and avoiding to overlook them, the Venerable One slowly wandered about, and, killing no creatures, he begged for his food.
Moist or dry or cold food, old beans, old pap, or bad grain, whether he did or did not get such food, he was rich (in control).
And Mahavira meditated (persevering) in some posture, without the smallest motion; he meditated in mental concentration on (the things) above, below, beside, free from desires.
He meditated free from sin and desire, not attached to sounds or colours; though still an erring mortal (khadmastha), he wandered about, and never acted carelessly.
Himself understanding the truth and restraining the impulses for the purification of the soul, finally liberated, and free from delusion, the Venerable One was well guarded during his whole life.
This is the rule which has been followed.
End of the Ninth Lecture, called the Pillow of Righteousness.
End of the First Book.
The Pillow of righteousness